Italy

Italy as Italy

Just a couple of days ago hbd chick was talking about the dissolution of Italy and how much Italians really feel for their country. Italy, being Italian, has never really been a solid paragon of the modern nationhood. It’s hard to convince me that they have anything in common with the Romans other than living on the same ground where the highly disciplined Roman legion had vowed to fight for. Anyway, today I have seen a rather amusing piece of news from the internet: Euro crisis prompts Italian village to declare independence.

There is something interesting about the first reaction of the major economic downturn. You see a Greek might hurry to Athens to protest against the governmental austerity plan; a German would probably point fingers to the slacking Southerners for the fault while triggering their forbidden Deutsch pride; even an American could go for a hippie movement to target on the high-table bankers. But for a tiny Italian village, the first thing that crossed over their mind was to secede from the country (I said clean and to the point, maybe).

It seems to me that the tradition of the city-state in Italy still has quite some support. Other long traditions of Italy, a modern papacy, or the Spanish rule would most likely fail nowadays in the Apennine peninsula. As I wonder, who is going to be the next city to propose such deal, too? It now strikes me that no wonder Italians would be fine with the loss of Nice, Corsica, and Istria. That also answers my wonder why San Marino has always kept “independent” all along.

Italy in Renaissance Era

Modern Luddite in Europe

For those who are not familiar with the term “Luddite“, it is an interesting social movement that took place in the early 19th century’s England, where textile artisans went on the street to protest and sabotage loads of mechanized looms in the factories. Those mechanized looms were seen as the devil that took away their textile jobs and therefore became the target of those angry unemployed artisans. At the same time, the invention of mechanized looms in early 19th century marked the start of the epic industrial revolution in England. The productivity of the society skyrocketed exponentially and the structure of the society altered dramatically along with a rapid advancement of technology in every aspect. From then on, mankind stepped into the most glamorous golden age that continues ever since.

There are many ways people interpret the Luddite. Some focus on the class conflict, some on the worsening livelihood of the workers, etc, and some people (including myself) view the Luddite as the founding ancestor for all the anti-development/anti-technology social movement that has been growing to achieve another eruptive momentum. I’ve been trying to figure out a name for those people. One of my friends suggest to call them “Amish wannabe”, I couldn’t agree more. So let’s refer them to the Amish wannabe here.

Where is the modern luddite? It’s everywhere in Europe, at least nowadays. Among all of the different sects, environmentalists are the strongest breed. What do they do? They often attack the very demerits of modern technology and development and compare to the most primitive scenario, which basically to them is the Amish lifestyle or even more primitive than that. Nowadays a farmer should only produce food without fertilizers or pesticides so that the food could be organic and sustainable; electricity should be only from the wind or the sun as concentrated massive scale of electricity generation synthesizes too much CO2 and that’s bad for the environment… But those Amish wannabe, who mostly come from affluent countries with no idea of the real nature, tend to ignore the fact that there is a reason why we use fertilizer and pesticide in the first place, and why fossil energy and nuclear energy (with the exception of hydro power) was favored over the wind and solar technology many years ago and why people start to build centralized electricity grid….  Not to say that modern development and technology is perfect, but as a realist I’d rather to face those environmental side-effects of modern development with more feasible and rational choices, such as more coordination of the global food production and the development of efficient fossil fuel combustion, nuclear fusion or even hydrogen to replace the current massive electricity infrastructure (wind/solar could only play minor roles in the future due to the intermittency and efficiency ratio of the power generation).

But Amish wannabe tends to not listen, and in fact, they make the loudest voice and complaint, regardless if their logic of argument stands. Since the current democracy system always reward the one who shouts the loudest, they tend to prevail in modern Western society. One great example is the absolute denial of nuclear science in Germany -> the phase out of all German nuclear plants by 2020 . Instead of solving the problems rationally, German politicians reward the noisy Amish wannabe with the decision to totally shut down one of the greatest technology in 20th century. Not to even mention that the potential of nuclear science is enormous and it is likely to be the dominant energy source for humans in the long term future (we could even create a SUN and go to other planet with that). I support the upgrade of nuclear, but a total ban of nuclear is nothing but luddite. This backward step is likely to cause two serious consequences -> 1. Germany irresponsibly create huge energy production burden and increase of electricity cost on the European energy market as renewable is far from filling the gap of the nuclear, and probably even more energy reliance on Russia, putting the economy of the whole Europe in jeopardy; 2. Germany could be happy with the wind and sun as much as they want, but others will be the winner to master fusion or hydrogen to obtain the key for eternal energy supply and science superiority (pity for the germans).

This is the case where the environmentalist gained rewards from shouting out loud, but what if the politics did not reward them? This is another very good example of how Amish wannabe react to the disagreement of their opinions: A few days ago a continuous demonstration against the construction of  a tunnel in Northern Italy that connects a planned new high-speed rail connecting Italy and France escalated into a bloody violent riot. Amish wannabe turn extremely violent against anything they think it’s against preservation. Their argument is mostly based on the belief that a tunnel might destroy the scenic value of the nature and destroy the vegetation on the construction site; whereas a new high-speed rail could bring way better stimulation to the crumbling Italian and French economy and even in long term reduce the use of automobiles and emit less pollution and CO2 in long run.

Modern luddite in Europe prevail. We could understand that probably those textile artisans were ill-educated breed who can’t figure out the mechanized looms but demonizing the machines and fear of change. But why modern luddite still exist and get more power in the computerized information era? As far as I could understand, technology improves and upgrades, it doesn’t mean that everyone gets smarter than before. People get more informed these days, but most of us couldn’t really comprehend and digest all the information. Therefore theories and speculations prevail. Especially for the case of technology development, as most of people do not really get involved into this process, they could hardly understand the importance of those sophisticated inventions and designs. While most of the people do not have the level of intelligence to fully appreciate an artificial object (let’s say a teleport gate in the future), they tend to focus on the uncertainty of introducing a new thing into the old world, that is to fear and resist. I recall Robert Conquest’s three laws of politics to further explain the incentives of modern luddite:

1. Everyone is conservative about what he knows best.

2. Any organization not explicitly right-wing sooner or later becomes left-wing.

3. The simplest way to explain the behavior of any bureaucratic organization is to assume that it is controlled by a cabal of its enemies. (This one fits the best to Amish wannabe’s attitude towards technologies)

In my conclusion I think the Amish wannabe will always exist. But whether they could stall the technology advancement of not, is a question that could be answered in the future. At least in Europe, I think so. Let’s just amuse ourselves to death.